Twelve-Factor App | Admin Processes

The twelfth factor of the Twelve-Factor App methodology emphasizes running these tasks as one-off processes.

Why Run Admin/Management Tasks as One-Off Processes?

Running administrative tasks as separate, one-off processes ensures they are isolated from the regular application processes, providing control and flexibility.

  • Isolation: Prevents admin tasks from interfering with normal application operations.
  • Reproducibility: Ensures consistency by running tasks in the same environment as the application.
  • Maintainability: Simplifies management by treating admin tasks as separate processes.

How to Run Admin/Management Tasks as One-Off Processes

Use Scripting for Admin Tasks

Scripts can be created for common administrative tasks, ensuring repeatability.

Example: Database Migration Script
alembic upgrade head
Utilize Containers for Isolation

Running admin tasks in containers ensures that they are executed in the same environment as the application.

Example: Docker Run Command for a One-Off Task
docker run -it --rm myapp python migrate
Implement Task Scheduling

For scheduled tasks, orchestration tools like Kubernetes CronJobs can be used.

Example: Kubernetes CronJob
apiVersion: batch/v1beta1
kind: CronJob
  name: nightly-backup
  schedule: "0 2 * * *"
          - name: backup
            image: backup-tool
            args: ["backup", "database"]

Deployment Strategies with Admin Processes

Managing one-off admin processes is essential for smooth operation.

  • Development Stage: Create scripts and tools for everyday admin tasks.
  • Deployment Stage: Utilize containers and orchestration for task execution.
  • Monitoring Stage: Monitor and log the execution of admin tasks.


Running admin and management tasks as one-off processes is critical to maintaining a robust and flexible application environment.